The virus that causes monkeypox has been confirmed in Ghana.
Five cases have been confirmed in the Eastern, Western, and Greater Accra areas, according to the Ghana Health Service.
As a result, Koenzanews.com looks into ways you, our valued reader, can keep safe:
During a 1958 examination into a pox-like disease in monkeys, the Monkeypox virus was discovered at the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen, Denmark.
However, it was first discovered in a 9-year-old kid in Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of Congo) in 1970, in a territory where smallpox had been eradicated in 1968.
Monkeypox cases were confirmed in the Midwest of the United States of America in the spring of 2003, marking the disease’s first recorded incidence outside of Africa.
The majority of the patients have had close encounters with prairie dogs as pets.
Direct contact with the blood, body fluids, or cutaneous or mucosal lesions of infected animals causes infection.
Human infections have also been reported as a result of touching sick monkeys, rats, and squirrels, with rodents serving as the virus’s primary reservoir.
Transmission is predominantly through droplet respiratory particles, which necessitate prolonged face-to-face contact, putting household members of active cases at higher risk of infection.
Inoculation or the placenta can also be used to spread the disease (congenital monkeypox). To present, there is no indication that monkeypox infections can be sustained in the human population only by person-to-person transmission.
Close contact with infected respiratory tract secretions, skin lesions (open wounds/injuries) of an infected individual, or objects recently contaminated by patient fluids or lesion materials can result in secondary, or human-to-human, transmission.
Monkeypox takes 6 to 16 days to incubate (from infection to beginning of symptoms), although it can take anywhere from 5 to 21 days.
Monkeypox is a self-limiting disease with symptoms lasting between 14 and 21 days.
The infection can be broken down into two stages:
Fever, severe headache, lymphadenopathy (lymph node swelling), back pain, myalgia (muscle discomfort), and severe asthenia (lack of energy) characterize the invasion stage (0-5 days).
The skin eruption period (which occurs within 1-3 days following the onset of fever) during which the various stages of the rash show, usually starting on the face and then spreading to other parts of the body.
The face (in 95% of cases), palms of hands, and soles of feet (in 75% of cases) are the most affected.
Factor of Risk
People who live in or near forest regions may be exposed to infected animals in an indirect or low-level manner, resulting in subclinical (asymptomatic) illness.
The case fatality rate has varied greatly between epidemics, although in known episodes, it has been less than 10%, especially among small children. Monkeypox appears to be more prevalent among younger age groups.
Monkeypox can only be definitively diagnosed in a laboratory, where the virus may be identified using a variety of assays.
Other rash illnesses, including as smallpox, chickenpox, measles, bacterial skin infections, scabies, syphilis, and medication-related allergies, must be examined in the differential diagnosis.
Monkeypox illness does not have any specific treatments or vaccinations, however outbreaks can be managed.
Vaccination against smallpox has previously been shown to be 85 percent effective in preventing monkeypox, but the vaccine is no longer available to the general public after global smallpox eradication.
The only approach to prevent infection in humans in the absence of a specialized therapy or vaccine is to raise awareness of the risk factors and educate people about the steps they may take to decrease viral exposure.
Hand washing should be done after caring for or visiting sick patients on a regular basis.
Taking steps to reduce the risk of human-to-human transmission. In endemic areas, efforts to prevent transmission should focus on properly boiling all animal products (blood, meat) before consumption.
It is highly recommended to send public health educational messages through the media – broadcast, electronic, and social.
Healthcare personnel, as well as individuals who handle or are exposed to monkeypox patients or their samples, should consider becoming smallpox inoculated through their national health authority.